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Policy case study-Maternal health in Rwanda
Written by Diana Maria Crivtonencu

Policy case study-Maternal health in Rwanda

The case study of Rwanda is particularly significant because it is a testament to the power of people to know that it is possible to turn a country that had come close to hacking itself out of existence, into a successful story. Lipsky’s model of street level bureaucracies describe best the implementation of the nationwide health insurance in Rwanda, as it reflects the important role of the CHWs in Rwandan society and how raising awareness in terms of safe motherhood locally, through education campaigns leads to the success of the policy.

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Religious Tourism; A Reference to Saidpur Village, Islamabad
Written by Fatima Hasnain

Religious Tourism; A Reference to Saidpur Village, Islamabad

Religious tourism consists of two major kinds, i.e. “Pilgrim tourism” and “Tourism of a sight-seeing informative orientation”. In Asian region, tourism by Muslims is a prominent activity when seen specifically for Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Iran, and Pakistan. The study focuses on locating and exploring the religious tourism in Saidpur model village, Islamabad. It studies the certain practices performed by the religious tourists to the religious sites in the study locale. The main themes derived are: 1. Location and Information about the religious sites for tourists and 2. Rituals and Practices of the visitors. In the case of Saidpur village, a proper trust to regulate religious tours can be established to assist and facilitate the tourists, as well as to provide the locals with sufficient resources to serve the visitors and maintain their religious heritage, leading to an efficient effort to promote religious tourism in the Saidpur Village.

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Plant- Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles
Written by Tayyaba Arif

Plant- Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Nanotechnology is the growing field of nanoscale materials, it is necessary to merge medicine and nanotechnology. The present study shows that if gold nanoparticles are plant mediated, they are cost-effective, rapid, and efficient. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using the Couroupita guianensis and they were characterized by using the FTIR, XRD, and SEM. Interestingly these plants mediated gold nanoparticles will be used in several applications of electronics, medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and treatments.

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GIS based Analysis of Ground Water Quality: A Case Study of Districts of Punjab- Pakistan
Written by Falak Naeem1 and Lubna Ghazal

GIS based Analysis of Ground Water Quality: A Case Study of Districts of Punjab- Pakistan

Pakistan as a third world country, primarily depends on agriculture for its economic growth. This study is based on use of spatial analysis techniques for identification of threats to the agricultural fields irrigated by groundwater in different districts of Punjab province. Through Arc GIS mapping, the sampled wells were observed in the pre and post monsoon of 2006 and 2013. 63% of wells exhibited high salinity in the pre monsoon-2006. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) was in high concentration in 82 wells in the same year. While the Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) showed highest concentration of 34.4 me/L. Consuming water with high concentration of salinity, sodium and its carbonates results in decreased crop yield. Therefore, there is a dire need for the strict implementation of laws and regulations to conserve natural resources and promote sustainable agricultural practices.

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The Pessimistic Future of Earth in The Face of Environmental Issues
Written by Taimiya Khalid

The Pessimistic Future of Earth in The Face of Environmental Issues

Environmental issues resulting from climate change have become a growing concern for countries globally. However, despite growing concerns not much is done in terms of concrete actions for climate change mitigation efforts. This study highlights some environmental issues and the extent of their impact on developing and the developed countries. The study discusses environmental issues across two parameters; indicators of continued environmental degradation and the political dimension of environmental issues. The environmental degradation parameter discusses the issues of rising global temperatures and increased development. The political dimension on the other hand highlights the issues of global north and south divide and that of climate change denial. In this study the need for urgency and coordinated global effort is also emphasized in order to effectively combat environmental issues.

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Saving Participatory Development from the Dangers of Institutionalization

The development discourse has evolved to acknowledge that top-down approaches need to be replaced by participatory interventions in order to make development sustainable. However, one of the major obstacles to this change is institutionalization. This article argues that participatory approach can come to its own rescue when facing the dangers of institutionalization. It outlines dangers that participatory development faces from this mainstreamed institutionalization, simultaneously providing the relevant solutions and suggestions from within the participatory discourse, proving that it can save itself. Participatory development as an approach can save itself from being institutionalized, provided that the practitioners avoid the pitfalls mentioned by implementing the approach in its original, pure form, rather than the ones born out of rapid evolution.

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Water Resources and Water Management in Pakistan

The rapid growth in consumption of natural resources, especially water, has generated a sense of urgency to improve water conservation policies. Water is crucial for life and every living being. With the rapid increase in population globally, an alarming future confronts the world. Pakistan is facing a water crisis due to mismanaged national policies on water and climate change along with scant best-practices. The agriculture sector is also highly affected due to soil erosion and salinity. Furthermore, unclean drinking water is also responsible for health-related diseases, especially among children and women. Realistically, water is an essential element that plays a crucial role in sustainable development. Climate change is responsible for various problems like water crisis, which not only effects agriculture but also human health, industrial mechanism, and economic growth.

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2019 Novel Corona Virus (COVID 19): Mini review of the Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus of 27-32kb genome size which belongs to the family of Coronaviridae and genus Coronavirus. It has emerged in China and has been reported as pandemic disease by World Health Organization. The virus can cause respiratory illness; termed as COVID-19 (coronavirus virus disease 2019). Common signs of infection include cough, fever and respiratory difficulties like shortness of breath. Serious cases of COVID-19 can lead to kidney failure, pneumonia and death. Worldwide efforts are being made via public health emergencies to identify the suspected COVID-19 cases and quarantine them to prevent further spread of the infection. Public vaccine hesitancy is a persistent problem for public health authorities. With the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, limited but increasing information is available on the public attitudes and acceptability towards the COVID-19 vaccines in Pakistan.

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Learn About the SDGs

Following the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012, there was an international agreement to negotiate a new set of global sustainable development goals (SDGs) to guide the world after 2015. On 1st of January, 2016,the 17 SDGs of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — adopted by world leaders in September 2015 at an historic UN Summit— officially came into force. SDGs have incorporated the three main dimensions of sustainable development; environmental, social, and economic. The new global development agenda aims to promote peaceful and inclusive societies; create greater employment opportunities and tackle the growing environmental challenges of our time.
Download the official Goals, targets and indicators here.

Communities for a Sustainable Future

The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from November 30 to December 12, 2015. In the Paris Climate Change Conference 2015 the world leaders reaffirmed their commitment and reached a global agreement to combat the challenge of climate change. With international forums and organizations recognizing the phenomenon as a grave threat, the national governments now need to mold their development agendas, with a more focused approach on climate change.
The issue of anthropogenic climate change stems from the rise in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere and the various impacts it has on human life and the environment.
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Learn About Climate Action

The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from November 30 to December 12, 2015. In the Paris Climate Change Conference 2015 the world leaders reaffirmed their commitment and reached a global agreement to combat the challenge of climate change. With international forums and organizations recognizing the phenomenon as a grave threat, the national governments now need to mold their development agendas, with a more focused approach on climate change.
The issue of anthropogenic climate change stems from the rise in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere and the various impacts it has on human life and the environment. Learn More.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q What is Sustainable Development?
A: Sustainable development has been defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It calls for concerted efforts towards building an inclusive, sustainable and resilient future for people and planet.

Q What are the SDGs and why 17 Goals?
A: The United Nations conducted the biggest public consultation in its history to ask which issues should be included in the Goals. It was agreed that 17 Goals, known as the Sustainable Development Goals, were needed in order to accommodate people’s views . That way the correct focus will be placed on the areas that are essential for creating a sustainable future for all.

Q Why are the Goals numbers and is the order significant?
A: The Goals begin with Goal 1 – No Poverty, to mark the continuation of the MDGs ambition to eliminate extreme poverty,. They end with Goal 17 – Partnerships for the Goals - to emphasise a continued commitment to work together in order to achieve progress for all. The order of the other goals does not signify any priority as all are critical and interdependent.